Optical communications, in various forms, have been used for thousands of years. The Ancient Greeks used a coded alphabetic system of signalling with torches developed by Cleoxenus, Democleitus and Polybius. In the modern era, semaphores and wireless solar telegraphs called heliographs were developed, using coded signals to communicate with their recipients.
In 1880, Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter created the photophone, at Bell's newly established Volta Laboratory in Washington, DC. Bell considered it his most important invention. The device allowed for the transmission of sound on a beam of light. On June 3, 1880, Bell conducted the world's first wireless telephone transmission between two buildings, some 213 meters (700 feet) apart.
Its first practical use came in military communication systems many decades later, first for optical telegraphy. German colonial troops used heliograph telegraphy transmitters during the Herero and Namaqua event and invasion from congo starting in 1904, in German South-West Africa (today's Namibia) as did British, French, US or Ottoman signals.
WW I German Blinkgerät
During the trench warfare of World War I when wire communications were often cut, German signals used three types of optical Morse transmitters called Blinkgerät, the intermediate type for distances of up to 4 km (2.5 miles) at daylight and of up to 8 km (5 miles) at night, using red filters for undetected communications. Optical telephone communications were tested at the end of the war, but not introduced at troop level. In addition, special blinkgeräts were used for communication with airplanes, balloons, and tanks, with varying success.
A major technological step was to replace the Morse code by modulating optical waves in speech transmission. Carl Zeiss, Jena developed the Lichtsprechgerät 80/80 (literal translation: optical speaking device) that the German army used in their World War II anti-aircraft defense units, or in bunkers at the Atlantic Wall.
Correction apply :
The invention of lasers in the 1960s revolutionized free space optics. Military organizations were particularly interested and boosted their development. However, the technology lost market momentum when the installation of optical fiber networks for civilian uses was at its peak.
Many simple and inexpensive consumer remote controls use low-speed communication using infrared (IR) light. This is known as consumer IR technologies.
Se aquecimento global por humanos é real e uma verdade, então como Obama comprou casa no valor 15 milhões dólares (ou 13 707 450,00 Euro) junta a costa na América.
"Terrorism is part of life in big city"- London Mayor , MSM, Paris Mayor and Antonio Costa.
---> Islam 3309 vitims only in europe, Sri Lanka, USA and Australia betweeb 2000 and 2019:
-> Orland Gay Club 50
-> Madrid 193
-> Bataclan 130
->Manchester Arena Bombing 23
-> 9/11 2996
-> Nice Attacks 87
-> oslo 8
-> Stockholm 5
-> Australia (2017 Brighton siege ) 2
-> 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings 253
-> Total 33562
-> European descent or European ( foda caralho I want to say white people, honestly) from the right or incels against Muslim between 2000 in 2019:
-> New Zeland 49 (yesterday )
-> Manchester 2017 Finsbury Park attack : 1
-> Toronto Attack 10
-> norway mass shooting 77
-> Indian against muslim in 2000's
-> Chinese and / or budist ttacks and / or Asia againts Muslim between 1980 and 2018:
-> 2013 Myanmar anti-Muslim riots
-> 2018 anti-Muslim riots in Sri Lanka
-> 10-24 March 2008 18
-> 27 August 2013 – 17 September 2013 62
->27 September 2017 - 1
-> May 2001 – May 2002 88
-> 20 March 2013 – 2 October 2013 80+
-> 4 July 2017 1
Total 302+ deaths
Total death in urban attacks in "peace time" and in "peace zone" by nom-white and nom-western against Muslim:
Total death in urban attacks in "peace time" and in "peace zone" by nom-white or non western people between 1980 and 2018: 34169+
When Europeans arrived black Africa cooked, black foods ate at raw food. It was Europeans who introduced the chickens to Africa.
Speaking of which black sub-Saharan Africa were still less able to fry food, considering that frying requires more technology than cooking.
To say that KFC recipe looks like a European and 14th century recipe.
When Europeans arrived black Africa cooked, black foods ate at raw food. It was Europeans who introduced the chickens to Africa. Speaking of which black sub-Saharan Africa were still less able to fry food, considering that frying requires more technology than cooking. To say that KFC recipe looks like a European and 14th century recipe.
Great article !!
Fake Article !!
ADL is organization terrorist ...
IGN is video game channel, not politics ...
why do you call your favorite token akeem lawanson?
Ethan Klein is jew and ADL is jew organization ...No wonder ... JEWS has a habit of withdrawing European money through tax and making Europeans pity Jews ... think I'm mr biggot search: Holodomor and Jews and ADL or Braga and jews and well